Agile Design: A Combined Model Based on Design Thinking and Agile Methodologies for Digital Games Projects

Marcelo Makoto Higuchi, Davi Noboru Nakano

Resumo


Traditional approaches to project management seek to discipline the execution and to organize different activities to be performed in order to reach the project goals. However, that focus may not be suitable for the beginning of projects that require creativity, as in the case of digital games. This article aims to develop a project management model that covers the whole process of digital games development, by combining two approaches, Design Thinking and Agile Methodology. The proposed model was constructed based on the theoretical framework of both methodologies, and has three parts: the Design Thinking phase, the Connection phase and the SCRUM phase. In order to evaluate the pertinence of the model, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with game developers of the Brazilian market. It was observed that many aspects of Design Thinking are used in the game development, that agile development is fully diffused in this process, and that association of both methodologies, besides being possible, can contribute to the efficiency of this process. The main contribution of this work is the presentation of an integrated model of project management that fully attends the process of the digital games development.


Palavras-chave


Game Development, Design Thinking, Agile Methodologies; Project Management.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


(PMI), P. M. (2008). A Guide to the project management body of knowledge - PMBOK - 4ª ed. Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute.

Abrahamsson, P., Conboy, K., & Wang, X.. (2009). “‘Lots done, more to do’: the current state of agile systems development research”. European Journal of Information Systems 18(4):281–84.

Aldridge, M. (1980). New Design Thinking sets Roll Formers Future. Metalworking Production, pp. 124-127.

Alliance, A. (2001). Principles: the agile alliance. Acesso em 2016, disponível em Agile Manifesto: http://agilemanifesto.org/principles.html

Akta , A., & Orcun, E. (2014). A survey of computer game development. The Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology, 1548512914554405-. http://doi.org/10.1177/1548512914554405

Albino, R. D., Souza, C. A. de, & Prado, E. P. V. (2014). Benefícios Alcançados por Meio de um Modelo de Gestão Ágil de Projetos em uma Empresa de Jogos. Revista de Gestão e Projetos - GeP, 5, 15–27.

Bauer, R., & Eagen, W. (2008). Design thinking: Epistemic plurality in management and organization. Aesthesis: International Journal of Art and Aesthetics in Management and Organizational Life, 2(3), 568–596.

Berthêm, A. C. (2007). Desenvolvimento de Jogos Eletrônicos: Teoria e Prática - 2ª ed. São Paulo: Novatec.

Boehm, B. (2002). Get Ready for Agle Methods, with Care. IEEE Computer, 1(35), 64–69. http://doi.org/10.1109/2.976920

Bonini, L. A., & Sbragia, R. (2011). O modelo de design thinking como indutor da inovação nas empresas: um estudo empírico. Revista de Gestão e Projetos, 2(1), 03–25. http://doi.org/10.5585/gep.v2i1.36

Brathwaite, B., & Schreiber, I. (2009). Challenges for game designers. Boston, MA: Charles River Media.

Brown, T. (2008). Design Thinking. Harvard Business Review. http://doi.org/10.1145/2535915

Brown, T. (2009). Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation. Director 00123242 (Vol. 31). http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Brown, T., & Katz, B. (2011). Change by design. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(3), 381–383.

Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. The MIT Press, 8(2), 5–21.

Buchanan, R. (2014). in Design Thinking Wicked Problems, 8(2), 5–21.

Buchanan, R. (2016). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking Author ( s ): Richard Buchanan Published by : MIT Press Stable URL : http://www.jstor.org/stable/1511637 Accessed : 01-03-2016 00 : 56 UTC Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions, 8(2), 5–21.

Cao, L., Mohan, K., Xu, P., & Ramesh, B. (2009). A framework for adapting agile development methodologies. European Journal of Information Systems, 18(4), 332–343. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2009.26

Cockburn, A. (2007). Agile Software Development: The Cooperative Game. Addison-Wesley.

Cockburn, Alistair e Jim Highsmith. (2001). “Agile Software Development:The People Factor”. Computer 34(11):131–33.

Conboy, K. (2009). Agility from first principles: Reconstructing the concept of agility in information systems development. Information Systems Research, 20(3), 329–354.

Cooper, R. G. (2014). Invited Article: What’s Next?: After Stage-Gate. Research-Technology Management, 57(1), 20–31. http://doi.org/10.5437/08956308X5606963

Cross, N. (1982). Designerly ways of knowing. Design, 3(4), 221–227.

Cross, N. (2006). Designerly Ways of Knowing. Berlim: Springer.d.school. (2008). Bootcamp Bootleg. Acesso em 25 de Fevereiro de 2016, disponível em d.school: Institute of Design at Stanford:

Dingsoyr, T., Nerur, S., Balijepally, V., & Moe, N. B. (2012). A decade of agile methodologies: Towards explaining agile software development. Journal of Systems and Software, 85(6), 1213–1221. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2012.02.033

Dorst, C. H. (2006). Design Problems and Design Paradoxes. Design Issues, 22(3), 4–17. http://doi.org/10.1162/desi.2006.22.3.4

Dorst, K. (2011). The core of “design thinking” and its application. Design Studies, 32(6), 521–532. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2011.07.006

Dunne, D., & Martin, R. (2006). Design thinking and how it will change management education: An interview and discussion. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 5(4), 512–523. http://doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2006.23473212

Erdogmus, H., Morisio, M., & Torchiano, M. (2005). NRC Publications Archive Archives des publications du CNRC. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 31(1), 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1039/B910216G

Fleury, A. L., Stabile, H., & Carvalho, M. M. De. (2016). An Overview of the Literature on Design Thinking : Trends and Contributions *. International Journal of Engineering Education, 32(4), 1704–1718.

Henderson-Sellers, B., & Serour, M. K. (2005). Creating a Dual-Agility Method: The Value of Method Engineering. Journal of Database Management, 16(4), 1–23. Recuperado de http://search.proquest.com/docview/199609160?accountid=14719%5Cnhttp://openurl.uquebec.ca:9003/uqam?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&sid=ProQ:ProQ:abiglobal&atitle=Creating+a+Dual-Agility+Method:+The+Value+of+Met

Highsmith, J., Consortium, C., & Cockburn, A. (2001). Development : The Business of Innovation. IEEE Computer, 120–127.

Hodgson, D., & Briand, L. (2013). Controlling the uncontrollable: “Agile” teams and illusions of autonomy in creative work. Work Employment and Society, 27(2), 308–325. http://doi.org/10.1177/0950017012460315

IDEO. (2011). Human Centered Design - 2ª ed. Johansson-Skoldberg, U. et al. (2013). “Design Thinking : Past , Present and Possible Futures”. Creativity and Innovation Management 22(2):121–46.

Kimbell, L. (2011). Rethinking Design Thinking: Part I. Design and Culture, 3(3), 285–306. http://doi.org/10.2752/175470811X13071166525216

Kimbell, L. (2012). Rethinking Design Thinking: Part II. Design and Culture, 4(2), 129–148. http://doi.org/10.2752/175470812X13281948975413

Lalsing, V. (2012). “People Factors in Agile Software Development and Project Management”. International Journal of Software Engineering & Applications 3(1):117–37. Recuperado (http://airccse.org/journal/ijsea/papers/3112ijsea09.pdf).

Larsen, L.J., Majgaard, G., 2016. Expanding the Game Design Space – Teaching Computer Game Design in Higher Education. Designs for Learning 8, 13–22. doi:10.16993/dfl.68

Lee, G., & Xia, W. (2010). Toward agile: An integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative field data on software development agility. MIS Quarterly, 34(1), 87–114. http://doi.org/Article

Liem, A. & Brangier, E. (2012). “Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics”. IOS Press 41(SUPPL.1):5243–50.

Lockwood, T. (2009). Frameworks of Design Thinking. Design Management Journal, 4(1), 3. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1942-5074.2009.00001.x

Martin, R. 2009. The Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Cambridge MA: Harvard Business Press.

Manninen, T., & Kujanpa, T. V. (2006). Game production process, a preliminary study (ELIAS project reports), Ludo-Craft, ELIAS-project (European Union Interreg III A Karjala), University of Oulu. Finlândia.Martin, R. (2009). The Design of Business: Why Design Thinking is the Next Competitive Advantage. Harvard Business Press. Recuperado de http://www.amazon.ca/Design-Business-Thinking-Competitive-Advantage/dp/1422177807

McCarthy, D. C., & Byron, S. (2005). The complete guide to game development, Art, and Design. East Sussex, UK.: Ilex.

Moe NB, Dingsøyr T, D. T. (2009). Overcoming Barriers to Self-Management in Software Teams. IEEE Software.

Nerur, S., Mahapatra, R., & Mangalaraj, G. (2005). “Challenges of Migrating to Agile Methodologies”. Communications of the ACM 48(2):72–78.

Razzouk, R., & Shute, V. (2012). What Is Design Thinking and Why Is It Important? Review of Educational Research, 82(3), 330–348. http://doi.org/10.3102/0034654312457429

Research, S. (December de 2016). Market brief year in review. Acesso em April de 2017, disponível em SuperData: https://www.superdataresearch.com/market-data/market-brief-year-in-review/

Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–169. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01405730

Schwaber, K. (2004). Agile Project Management with SCRUM. Microsoft Press.

Siau, Keng. (2005). “A Retrospective Review of JDM from 2003 to 2005 and a Discussion on Publication Emphasis of JDM for the Next Two to Three Years”. Journal of Database Management 16(4):58–71.

Simon, H. A. (1973). The structure of ill structured problems. Artificial Intelligence, 4(3–4), 181–201. http://doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(73)90011-8

Sloper, T. (2002). Following Up After the Game is Released: It’s not Over when it’s Over. Game Design Perspectives.

Sommerville, I. (2003). Engenharia de Software - 6ª ed. São Paulo: Addison Wesley.

Stacey, R. D., Griffin, D., & Shawn, P. (2002). Complexity and Management: Fad or Radical Challenge to Systems Thinking? Journal of Macromarketing, 22(2), 198–201. http://doi.org/10.1177/0276146702238228

Seidel, V. P. & Fixson, S. K. (2013). “Adopting design thinking in novice multidisciplinary teams: The application and limits of design methods and reflexive practices”. Journal of Product Innovation Management 30(SUPPL 1):19–33.

Vetterli, C., Brenner, W., Uebernickel, F., & Petrie, C. 2013. “From palaces to yurts: Why requirements engineering needs design thinking”. IEEE Internet Computing 17(2):91–94.

Williams, L., Kessler, R. R., Cunningham, & W., Jeffries, R. (2000). Strengthening the case for pair programming. IEEE Software, 17, 19–25. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)74076-9




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5585/gep.v8i2.528

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Direitos autorais 2017 Marcelo Makoto Higuchi, Davi Noboru Nakano

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição - Não comercial - Sem derivações 4.0 Internacional.

GeP – Revista Gestão e Projetos
ISSN da versão eletronica: 2236-0972
http://www.revistagep.org