The emergency of behavioral studies in strategy

Simone Cesar Silva Vicente, Diego Nogueira Rafael, Fernando Antonio Ribeiro Serra


Study objective: This study aims to identify the emergence of new studies in the field of strategy, considering 12 years of publications in the Strategic Management Journal.

Methodology / approach: In the Web of Science database, we searched the journal “Strategic Management Journal”, in two periods, 2007 to 2012 and 2013 to 2018. We exclusively selected articles related to “Business” and “Management”. This search generated 1,100 articles for our database, with 376 articles from the first period and 724 articles from the second period. We use matching techniques in the analyses performed using Bibexcel and SPSS. At the same time, in Ucinet, we created the network diagram which supports the relationships between the identified factors and confirmatory analysis of the findings.

Originality / Relevance: Bibliometric studies are constantly seeking to analyze how the theoretical structure of theories is progressing, and in strategy, it has not been different. To verify how studies in strategy have evolved in theoretical terms, given their multi-disciplinarity, a comparative study of two distinct but subsequent periods offers a global view of where the studies are heading. We discovered new theoretical fronts in essence to behavioral studies that emerged in previous studies and are strengthened in new research.

Main results: The search identified 57 articles and six factors from 2007 to 2012 and 2013 to 2018 produced 22 articles and five factors. The results confirmed the evolution of studies in behavioral theories, especially regarding managers and their strategies as well as other findings, such as research related to environmental dynamics and competitive dynamics. We still have strong participation of studies with resource-based theory, transaction costs, and the emergence of new theories such as tournaments and behavioral strategy.

Theoretical / methodological contributions: Bibliometric searches can be examples of how to analyze references. In this sense, this study helps researchers have a parameter in similar studies, with pairing analysis and the combination of analysis of two subsequent periods. On the theoretical side, the findings give strength to previous research, validating established theories and showing emerging theories.

Social / management contributions: This research obtained results that confirm the multi-disciplinarity in strategy studies. Behavioral theories have emerged and strengthened in recent years. For management, we found that the surveys substantially analyze the strategic behavior of senior members in strategic decisions, such as in company acquisitions, in the formation of alliances, and how managers will perform when they are under contracts, differentiated remuneration, or in competition. For this reason, some theories emerged in the second period, such as tournament theory, not highlighted in previous bibliometric studies. Finally, a comparative summary of the factors found in the two periods helps managers in managerial perspectives on organizational strategies.


Strategy; Strategic management journal; Bibliometric; Behavioral studies.


Alvarez, S. A., & Busenitz, L. W. (2001). The entrepreneurship of resource-based theory. Journal of Management, 27(6), 755-775.

Amason, A. C. (1996). Distinguishing the effects of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: Resolving a paradox for top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 39(1), 123-148.

Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). Value creation in e‐business. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6‐7), 493-520.

Augier, M., Fang, C. & Rindova, V.P. (2018), "Introduction – Behavioral Strategy: A Quick Account", Behavioral Strategy in Perspective (Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 39), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 1-10.

Astley, W. G. (1985). Administrative science as socially constructed truth. Administrative Science Quarterly, 497-513.

Azar, O. H., & Brock, D. M. (2008). A Citation‐Based Ranking of Strategic Management Journals. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 17(3), 781-802.

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.

Barney, J. B., Ketchen Jr, D. J., & Wright, M. (2011). The future of resource-based theory: revitalization or decline? Journal of Management, 37(5), 1299-1315.

Bharadwaj, A. S., Bharadwaj, S. G., & Konsynski, B. R. (1999). Information technology effects on firm performance as measured by Tobin’s q. Management Science, 45(7), 1008–1024.

Bourgeois III, L. J., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (1988). Strategic decision processes in high velocity environments: Four cases in the microcomputer industry. Management Science, 34(7), 816-835.

Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., & Freeman, L. C. (2002). Ucinet for Windows: Software for social network analysis. Harvard, MA: analytic technologies, 2006.

Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1(2), 245-276.

Cole, S. (1983). The hierarchy of the sciences? American Journal of sociology, 89(1), 111-139.

Cunha Filho, M. A. L., Herrero, E., Mello, C. C. M., & Vidal, D. (2019). Ascension and decline of successful companies: a bibliometric study on the Icarus paradox. Revista Ibero-Americana de Estratégia, 18(1), 139. ttps://

Cuypers, I. R., Ertug, G., Reuer, J. J., & Bensaou, B. (2017). Board representation in international joint ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 38(4), 920-938.

D'Aveni, R. A., Dagnino, G. B., & Smith, K. G. (2010). The age of temporary advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 31(13), 1371-1385.

DiMaggio, P., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Collective rationality and institutional isomorphism in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147-160.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 543-576.

Eisenhardt, K. M., & Martin, J. A. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: what are they?. Strategic Management Journal, 21(10‐11), 1105-1121.<1105::AID-SMJ133>3.0.CO;2-E

Ferreira, M. (2011). A bibliometric study on Ghoshal's managing across borders. Multinational Business Review, 19(4), 357-375. Https://

Ferreira, J. J. M., Fernandes, C. I., & Ratten, V. (2016). A co-citation bibliometric analysis of strategic management research. Scientometrics, 109(1), 1-32.

Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1976). Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3(4), 305-360.

Garfield, E. From Bibliographic Coupling to Co-Citation Analysis via Algorithmic Historio- Bibliography A Citationist’s Tribute to Belver C. Griffith. Conferência ministrada em Drexel University, Philadelphia, 2001.

Grácio, M. C. C. (2016). Pareamento bibliográfico e análise de co-citação: revisão teórico-conceitual. Encontros Bibli: Revista Eletrônica de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação, 21(47), 82-99.

Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology, 91, 481-510.

Guerrazzi, L. A. C., Serra, F. A. R., Marchiano, M., & Pinto, R. F. (2017). Um estudo bibliométrico sobre declínio organizacional em ambiente empreendedor: perspectivas e tendências. Revista da Micro e Pequena Empresa, 11(2), 72.

Hair Jr., J.F.; Black, W.C.; Babin, B.J.; Anderson, R.E. & Tatham, R.L. Análise multivariada de dados. 6.ed. Porto Alegre, Bookman, 2009.

Hambrick, DC; Crossland, C. (2018), "A Strategy for Behavioral Strategy: Appraisal of Small, Midsize, and Large Tent Conceptions of This Embryonic Community", Behavioral Strategy in Perspective (Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 39), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, 23-39.

Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-206.

Hambrick, D. C. (2004). The disintegration of strategic management: It's time to consolidate our gains, 91-98. Strategic Organization, 2(1), 91-98. DOI: 10.1177/1476127004040915.

Hambrick, D. C. (2007). Upper echelons theory: An update. Academy of Management, 32(2), 334-343.

Hagstrom, W. O. (1965). The scientific community. New York: basic books.

Hambrick, D. & Mason, P. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review. 9(2), 193-206.

Helfat, C. E. (2007). Stylized facts, empirical research and theory development in management. Strategic Organization, 5(2), 185-192. DOI: 10.1177/1476127007077559.

Kessler, M. M. (1963). Bibliographic coupling between scientific papers. American documentation, 14(1), 10-25.

Kuhn, T. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Levine, S. S., & Kurzban, R. (2006). Explaining clustering in social networks: Towards an evolutionary theory of cascading benefits. Managerial and Decision Economics, 27(2‐3), 173-187.

Levinthal, D. A., & March, J. G. (1993). The myopia of learning. Strategic Management Journal, 14(S2), 95-112.

Martins, R., Serra, F., Leite, A., Ferreira, M., & Li, D. (2010). Transactions Cost Theory influence in strategy research: a review through a bibliometric study in leading journals. Journal of Strategic Management Education, 6, 1-22.

McCain, K. W. (1990). Mapping authors in intellectual space: A technical overview. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41(6), 433-443.<433::AID-ASI11>3.0.CO;2-Q

Miller, K. D. (2007). Risk and rationality in entrepreneurial processes. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1‐2), 57-74.

Miller, D. J., & Yang, H. S. (2016). The dynamics of diversification: Market entry and exit by public and private firms. Strategic Management Journal, 37(11), 2323-2345.

Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., & Lampel, J. (2009). Safári da estratégia. Bookman Editora.

Nath, R., & Jackson, W. M. (1991). Productivity of management information systems researchers: does Lotka's law apply? Information Processing & Management, 27(2-3), 203-209.

Nerur, S., Rasheed, A. & Natarajan, V. (2008). The intellectual structure of the strategic management field: an author co-citation analysis. Strategic Management Journal, 29(3), 319-336.

Peteraf, M. A. (1993). The cornerstones of competitive advantage: a resource‐based view. Strategic Management Journal, 14(3), 179-191.

Pfeffer, J. & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. Harper and Row.

Petrenko, O. V., Aime, F., Ridge, J., & Hill, A. (2016). Corporate social responsibility or CEO narcissism? CSR motivations and organizational performance. Strategic Management Journal, 37(2), 262-279.

Pinto, R. F., Guerrazzi, L. A. C., Serra, B. P. C., & Kniess, C. T. (2016). A pesquisa em administração estratégica: um estudo bibliométrico em periódicos internacionais de estratégia no período de 2008 a 2013. Revista Ibero Americana de Estratégia, 15(2). 22-37. //

Porter, M. E. (1980). Industry structure and competitive strategy: Keys to profitability. Financial Analysts Journal, 36(4), 30-41.

Pritchard, A. (1969). Statistical bibliography or bibliometrics. Journal of Documentation, 25(4), 348-349.

Quevedo-Silva, F., Santos, E. B. A., Brandão, M. M., & Vils, L. (2016). Estudo bibliométrico: orientações sobre sua aplicação. Revista Brasileira de Marketing, 15(2), 246-262. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v15i2.3274.

Ramos‐Rodríguez, A. R., & Ruíz‐Navarro, J. (2004). Changes in the intellectual structure of strategic management research: A bibliometric study of the Strategic Management Journal, 1980–2000. Strategic Management Journal, 25(10), 981-1004.

Rumelt, R.P. (1974). Strategy, Structure and Economic Perfor Mance. Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press.

Schendel, D. & Hofer, C. W. (1979). Strategic Management: A New View of Business Policy and Planning. Boston: Little Brown.

Shafique, M. (2013). Thinking inside the box? Intellectual structure of the knowledge base of innovation research (1988–2008). Strategic Management Journal, 34(1), 62–93.

Serra, F. A. R., Ferreira, M. P., Guerrazzi, L. A. Camargo, & Scaciotta, V. V. (2018). Doing Bibliometric Reviews for the Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management. Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management (IJSM), 17(3), 01-16. DOI: 10.5585/ ijsm.v17i3.2713.

Serra, F. R., Ferreira, M. P., de Almeida, M. I. R., & de Souza Vanz, S. A. (2012). A pesquisa em administração estratégica nos primeiros anos do século XXI: um estudo bibliométrico de citação e co-citação no Strategic Management Journal entre 2001 e 2007. Revista Eletrônica de Estratégia & Negócios, 5(2), 257-274.

Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509-533.<509::AID-SMJ882>3.0.CO;2-Z

Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: the nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), 1319-1350.

Vasconcelos, F. C., & Cyrino, Á. B. (2000). Vantagem competitiva: os modelos teóricos atuais e a convergência entre estratégia e teoria organizacional. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 40(4), 20-37.

Vicente, S. C. S. Rafael, D. N, Bussler, N. R. B., Joaquim Filho, J., & Nabarreto, R L (2020). Evolução da co-citação-estrutura intelectual da pesquisa em estratégia: uma extensão do trabalho de Ramos-rRodriguez e Ruíz-Navarro (2004). Revista Ibero-Americana de Estratégia (RIAE), 19(1). 33-63.

Vogel, R., & Güttel, W. H. (2013). The dynamic capability view in strategic management: a bibliometric review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(4), 426-446.

Wang, H., Zhao, S., & Chen, G. (2017). Firm‐specific knowledge assets and employment arrangements: Evidence from CEO compensation design and CEO dismissal. Strategic Management Journal, 38(9), 1875-1894.

Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource‐based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171-180.

Wu, B. (2013). Opportunity costs, industry dynamics, and corporate diversification: Evidence from the cardiovascular medical device industry, 1976–2004. Strategic Management Journal, 34(11), 1265-1287.

Williamson, O. E. (1979). Transaction-cost economics: the governance of contractual relations. The Journal of Law and Economics, 22(2), 233-261.

Zhao, D., & Strotmann, A. (2008). Evolution of research activities and intellectual influences in information science 1996–2005: Introducing author bibliographic‐coupling analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(13), 2070-2086.

Zupic, I.; Cater, T. (2015). Bibliometric Methods in Management and Organization. Organizational Research Methods, 18(3), 429–472.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management (IJSM)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Revista Iberoamericana de Gestão Estratégica (IJSM)
Revista Ibero-Americana de Estratégia (RIAE)
e-ISSN: 2176-0756

Revista Iberoamericana de Gestão Estratégica (IJSM) © 2022 Todos os direitos reservados.

Esta obra está licenciada com Licença
Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional