Donald C. Hambrick's contribution to the upper echelon theory – a bibliometric study

José Eduardo Valladares Teixeira


Objective: Our objective was to investigate the impact of Donald C. Hambrick’s contributions to the Upper Echelon Theory (UET).

Approach: A bibliometric study of citations and co-citations in articles which refer to research published by the author on UET.

Results: In this study, we confirmed the relevance of articles published by Hambrick on the UET over time, revealed the association of the UET with different theoretical currents in Management and identified current research fronts on the subject.

Limitations: The search for citations to Hambrick’s work on UET was limited to articles published in peer-reviewed academic journals, which eliminated part of the author’s research on the subject. We obtained the citations to Hambrick’s articles on UET exclusively from the ISI Web of Knowledge database, which uses highly selective criteria for choosing indexed publications indexed.

Practical implications: Based on the results, we point out opportunities for further investigation into topics regarding Upper Echelons Theory, application and analysis in new contexts.

Originality / Relevance: This is the first known bibliometric study to analyze all Hambrick’s articles on the UET.


Donald C. Hambrick; Upper echelon theory; Biblimetrics; Top management team.


Abrahamson, E., & Hambrick, D. C. (1997). Attentional homogeneity in industries: the effect of discretion. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(Special Issue), 513-532.

Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bar-Ilan, J. (2014). Citations to the "introduction to informetrics" indexed by WOS, Scopus and Google Scholar. Scientometrics, 82(3), 495-506.

Berle, A. A., Jr., & Means, G. C. (1932). The modern corporation and private property. New York: McMillan.

Briscoe, F. Chin, M. K., & Hambrick, D. C. (2014). CEO ideology as an element of the corporate opportunity structure for social activists. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), 1786-1809.

Cannella, A., & Hambrick, D. C. (1993). Effects of executive departures on the performance of acquired firms. Strategic Management Journal, 14(Special Issue), 137-152.

Carpenter, M. A., Geletkanycz, M. A., & Sanders, W. G. (2004). Upper echelons research revisited: antecedents, elements and consequences of Top Management Team composition. Journal of Management, 30(6), 749-778.

Chatterjee, A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2007). It's all about me: narcissistic chief executive officers and their effects on company strategy and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(3), 351-386.

Chatterjee, A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2011). Executive personality, capability cues, and risk taking: how narcissistic CEOs react to their success and stumbles. Administrative Science Quarterly, 56(12), 202-237.

Chen, G., & Hambrick, D. C. (2012). CEO replacement in turnaround situations: executive (mis)fit and its performance implications. Organization Science, 23(1), 225-243.

Chen, G., Hambrick, D. C., & Pollock, T. G. (2008). Puttin' on the Ritz: pre-IPO enlistment of prestigious affiliates as deadline-induced remediation. Academy of Management Journal, 51(5), 954-975.

Chen, G., Treviño, L. K., & Hambrick, D. C. (2009). CEO elitist association: toward a new understanding of an executive behavioral pattern. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 316-328.

Child, J. (1972). Organizational structure, environment and performance: the role of strategic choice. Sociology, 6(1), 1-22.

Child, J. (1997). Strategic Choice in the analysis of action, structure, organizations and environment: retrospect and prospect. Organization Studies, 18(1), 43-76.

Chin, M. K., Hambrick, D. C., & Treviño, L. K. (2013). Political ideologies of CEOs: the influence of executives’ values on corporate social responsibility. Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(2), 197-232.

Cho, T. S., & Hambrick, D. C. (2006). Attention as the mediator between top management team and strategic change: the case of airline deregulation. Organization Science, 17(4), 453-469.

Crossland, C., & Hambrick, D. C. (2007). How national systems differ in their constraints on corporate executives: A study of CEO effects in three countries. Strategic Management Journal, 28(8), 767-789

Crossland, C., & Hambrick, D. C. (2011). Differences in managerial discretion across countries: how nation-level institutions affect the degree to which CEOs matter. Strategic Management Journal, 32(8), 797-819.

Crossland, C., Zyung, J., Hillier, N. J., & Hambrick, D. C. (2014). CEO career variety: effects on firm-level strategic and social novelty. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3), 652-674.

Cyert, R. M., & March, J. G. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.

Dalton, D. R., Daily, C. M., Ellstrand, A. E., & Johnson, J. L. (1998). Meta-analytic reviews of board composition, leadership structure, and financial performance. Strategic Management Journal, 9(3), 269-290.

Dalton, D. R., Hitt, M. A., Certo, S. T., & Dalton, C. M. (2007). The fundamental agency problem and Its mitigation: independence, equity, and the market for corporate control. Academy of Management Annals, 1, 1-64.

Davis, J. H., Schoorman, F. D., & Donaldson, L. (1997). Toward a stewardship theory of management. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 20-47.

Dess, G. D., & Beard, D. W. (1984). Dimensions of organizational task environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29(1), 52-73.

DiMaggio, P., & Powell, W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147-160.

D’Aveni, R. A. (1990). Top management prestige and organizational bankruptcy. Organizational Science, 1(2), 121-142.

Eisenhardt, K. (1989a). Agency theory: an assessment and review. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 57-74.

Eisenhardt, K. (1989). Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 543-576.

Eisenhardt, K. M., & Bourgeois, L. J. (1988). Politics of strategic decision making in high-velo-city environments: toward a midrange theory. Academy of Management Journal, 31(4), 737–770.

Eisenhardt, K., & Martin, J. A. (2000 ). Dynamic capabilities: what are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21(10-11), 1105-1121.

Fama, E. F. (1980). Agency problems and the theory of the firm. Journal of Political Economy, 88(21), 288-307.

Fama, E. F., & Jensen, M. C. (1983). Separation of ownership and control. Journal of Law & Economics, 26(2), 301-325.

Ferreira, M. A. S. P. V., Pinto, C. S. F., Serra, F. A. R., & Santos, J. C. (2013). A bibliometric study of John Dunning’s contribution to international business research. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 15(46), 56-75

Finkelstein, S., & Hambrick, D. C. (1988). Chief executive compensation: a synthesis and reconciliation. Strategic Management Journal, 9(6), 543-558.

Finkelstein, S., & Hambrick, D. C. (1989). Chief executive compensation: a study of the intersection of markets and political processes. Strategic Management Journal, 10(2), 121-134.

Finkelstein, S., & Hambrick, D. C. (1990). Top management team tenure and organizational outcomes: the moderating role of managerial discretion. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(3), 484–503.

Finkelstein, S., & Hambrick, D. C. (1996). Strategic leadership: top executives and their effects on organizations. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Pub.

Finkelstein, S., Hambrick, D. C., & Canella, A. A., Jr. (2009). Strategic leadership: theory and research on executives, top management teams, and boards. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fredrickson, J. W., Hambrick, D. C., & Baumrin, S. (1988). A model of CEO dismissal. Academy of Management Review, 13(2), 255-270.

Garfield, E. (1998). Random thoughts in Citationology: its theory and practice. Scientometrics, 43(1), 69-76.

Gavetti, G., Levinthal, D., & Ocasio, W. (2007). Neo-Carnegie: the Carnegie School’s past, present and reconstructing for the future. Organization Science, 18(3), 523-536.

Geletkanycz, M. A., & Hambrick, D. C. (1997). The external ties of top executives: implications for strategic choice and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(4), 654-681.

Gerstner, W. C., Konig, A., Enders, A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2013). CEO narcissism, audience engagement, and organizational adoption of technological discontinuities. Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(2), 257-291.

Gupta, A., Briscoe, F., & Hambrick, D. C. (2017). Red, blue, and purple firms: organizational political ideology and corporate social responsibility. Strategic Management Journal, 38(5), 1018-1040.

Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Análise multivariada de dados, 6a edição. Porto Alegre: Bookman.

Hambrick, D. C. (1981a). Environment, strategy, and power within top management teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26 (2), 253-275.

Hambrick, D. C. (1981b). Specialization of environmental scanning within top management teams. Journal of Management Studies, 18(3), 299-320.

Hambrick, D. C. (1981c). Strategic awareness within top management teams. Strategic Management Journal, 2(3), 263-279.

Hambrick, D. C. (1982). Environmental scanning and organizational strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 3(2), 159-174.

Hambrick, D. C. (2007). Upper echelons theory: an update. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 334-343.

Hambrick, D. C., & Abrahamson, E. (1995). Assessing the amount of managerial discretion in different industries. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5 ), 1427-1441.

Hambrick, D. C., Cannella, A. A. (1993). Relative standing: a framework for understanding departures of acquired executives. Academy of Management Journal, 36(4), 733-762.

Hambrick, D. C., & Cannella, A. (2004). CEOs who have COOs: contingency analysis of an unexplored structural form. Strategic Management Journal, 25(10), 959-979.

Hambrick, D.C., Cho, T. S., & Chen, M. J. (1996), The influence of top management team heterogeneity on firms' competitive moves. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4), 659-684.

Hambrick, D. C., Davison, S. C., Snell, S. A., & Snow, C. C. (1998). When groups consist of multiple nationalities: towards a new understanding of the implications. Organization Studies, 19(2), 181- 205.

Hambrick, D. C., & D'Aveni, R. (1992). Top management team deterioration as part of the downward spiral of large bankruptcies. Management Science, 38(10), 1445-1466.

Hambrick, D. C., & Finkelstein, S. (1987). Managerial discretion: a bridge between polar views on organizations. In B. Staw (Ed.). Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 9, pp. 369-406). Beverly Hill: JAI Press.

Hambrick, D. C., & Finkelstein, S. (1995). The effects of ownership structure on conditions at the top: the case of CEO pay raises. Strategic Management Journal, 16(3), 175-193.

Hambrick, D. C., Finkelstein, S., & Mooney, A. (2005). Executive job demands: new insights for explaining strategic decisions and leader behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 30(3), 472–491.

Hambrick, D. C., & Fukutomi, G. (1991). Seasons of a CEO’s tenure. Academy of Management Review, 16(4), 719-742

Hambrick, D. C., Geletkanycz, M., & Fredrickson, J. (1993). Top executive commitment to the status quo: some tests of its determinants. Strategic Management Journal, 14(6), 401-418.

Hambrick, D. C., Humphrey, S. E., & Gupta, A. (2015). Structural interdependence within top management teams: a key moderator of upper echelons predictions. Strategic Management Journal, 36(3), 449-461.

Hambrick, D. C., Li, J., Xin, K., & Tsui, A. S. (2001). Compositional gaps and downward spirals in international joint venture management groups. Strategic Management Journal, 22(11), 1033-1053.

Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: the organization as reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-206.

Hambrick, D. C., Misangyi, V. F., & Park, C. A. (2015). The quad model for identifying a corporate director's potential for effective monitoring: toward a new theory of board sufficiency. Academy of Management Review, 40(3), 323-344.

Hambrick, D. C., & Quigley, T. J. (2014). Toward more accurate contextualization of the CEO effect on firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 35(4), 473-491.

Hanisch, B., & Wald, A. (2012). A bibliometric view on the use of contingency theory in project management research. Project Management Journal, 43(3), 4-23.

Hannan, M., & Freeman, J. (1977). The population ecology of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 929-964.

Harrigan, R. H. (1980). Strategy formulation in declining industries. Academy of Management Review, 5(4), 499-604.

Haynes, K. T., & Hillman, A. (2010). The effect of board capital and CEO power on strategic change. Strategic Management Journal, 31(11), 1145-1163.

Hayward, M., & Hambrick, D. C. (1997). Explaining the premiums paid for large acquisitions: evidence of CEO hubris. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(1), 103-127.

Henderson, A. D., Miller, D., & Hambrick, D. C. (2006). How quickly do COEs become obsolete? Industry dynamism, CEO tenure, and company performance. Strategic Management Journal, 27(5), 447-460.

Hillier, N., & Hambrick, D. C. (2005). Conceptualizing executive hubris: the role of (hyper-) core self-evaluations in strategic decision-making. Strategic Management Journal, 26(4), 297-319.

Hillman, A. J., & Dalziel, T. ( 2003). Boards of directors and firm performance: integrating agency and resource dependence perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 383-396.

Johnson, S. G., Schnatterly, K., & Hill, A. D. (2013). Board composition beyond independence: social capital, human capital, and demographics. Journal of Management, 39(1), 232-262.

Lawrence, B.S. (1997). 1997. The black box of organizational demography. Organization Science, 8(1), 1–22.

Li, J., & Hambrick, D. C. (2005). Factional groups: a new vantage on demographic faultlines, conflict and disintegration in work teams. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 794-813.

Kilduff, M. (2007). Celebrating thirty years of theory publishing in AMR: award-winning articles from the first two decades revisited. Academy of Management Review, 22(2), 332-333.

McCain, K. (1990). Mapping authors in intellectual space: a technical overview. Journal of the

American Society for Information Science, 41(6), 433-443.

March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71-87.

March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley.

Michel, J. G., & Hambrick, D. C. (1992). Diversification posture and the characteristics of the top management team. Academy of Management Journal, 35(1), 9-37.

North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Nosella, a., Cantarello, S., & Filippini, R. (2012). The intellectual structure of organizational ambidexterity: a bibliographic investigation into the state of the art. Strategic Organization, 10(4), 450-465.

Oppong, S. (2014). Upper echelons theory revisited: the need for a change from causal description to causal explanation. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 19(2), 169-183.

Penrose, E. (1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. New York: Wiley.

Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations: a resource dependence perspective. New York: Harper & Row.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Pollock, T. G., Chen, G., Jackson, E. M., & Hambrick, D. C. (2010). How much prestige is enough? Assessing the value of multiple types of high-status affiliates for young firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(1), 6-23.

Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive strategy: techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: The Free Press.

Potter, W. G. (1981). Lotka's law revisited. Library Trends, 30(l):21-39.

Quigley, T. J., & Hambrick, D. C. (2012). When the former CEO stays on as board chair: effects on successor discretion, strategic change, and performance. Strategic Management Journal, 33(7), 834-859.

Quigley, T. J., & Hambrick, D. C. (2015). Has the "CEO effect" increased in recent decades? A new explanation for the great rise in America's attention to corporate leaders. Strategic Management Journal, 36(6), 821-830.

Ramos-Rodríguez, A. R., & Ruíz-Navarro, J. (2004). Changes in the intellectual structure of strategic management research: a bibliometric study of the Strategic Management Journal. Strategic Management Journal, 25(10), 981-1004.

Sanders, W. G., & Hambrick, D. C. (2007). Swinging for the fences: the effects of CEO stock options on company risk-taking and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1055-1078.

Shen, W., & Cannella, A. A. (2002). Power dynamics within top management and their impacts on CEO dismissal followed by inside succession. Academy of Management Journal, 45(6 ), 1195-1206.

Siegel, P. A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2005). Pay disparities within top management groups: evidence of harmful effects on performance of high-technology firms. Organization Science, 16(3), 259-274.

Small, H. (1973). Co‐citation in the scientific literature: a new measure of the relationship between two documents. Journal of the American Society for information Science, 24(4), 265-269.

Snow, C. C., & Hambrick, D. C. (1980). Measuring organizational strategies: some theoretical and methodological problems. Academy of Management Review, 5(4), 527-538.

Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509-533.

Testa, J. (2016). Journal selection process. Recuperado em 23 de novembro de 2017, de:

Torres-Salinas, D., Robinson-Garcia, N., Campanario, J. M., & López-Cózar, E. D. (2014). Coverage, field specialisation and the impact of scientific publishers indexed in the Book Citation Index. Online Information Review, 38(1), 24-42.

Vogel, R., & Güttel, W. H. (2013). The dynamic capabilites view in strategic management: a bibliometric review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(4), 426-446.

Walsh, J. P., & Seward, J. K. (1990). On the efficiency of internal and external corporate-control mechanisms. Academy of Management Review, 15(3), 421-458.

Wangrow, D. B., Schepker, D. J. & Barker, V. L., III (2015). Managerial discretion: an empirical review and focus on future research directions. Journal of Management, 41(1), 99-135.

Web of Science Core Collection. Recuperado em 10 de outubro de 2017, de

Westphal, J. D., & Zajac, E. J. (1995). Who shall govern? CEO/board power, demographic similarity, and new director selection. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(1), 60-83.

White, D., & McCain, K. (1998). Visualizing a discipline: An author cocitation analysis of information science, 1972–1995. Journal of the American Society for Information Science,

(4), 327-355.

Wiersema, M. F., & Bantel, K. A. (1992). Top management team demography and corporate strategic change. Academy of Management Journal, 35(1), 91-121.

Wiersema, M. F., & Zhang, Y. (2011). CEO dismissal: the role of investment analysts. Strategic Management Journal, 32(11), 1161-1182.

Wiesenfeld, B. M., Whurtmann, K. A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2008). The stigmatization and devaluation of elites associated with corporate failures: a process model. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 231-251.

Wowak, A. J., & Hambrick, D. C. (2010). A model of person-pay interaction: how executives vary in their responses to compensation arrangements. Strategic Management Journal, 31(8), 803-821.

Wowak, A. J., Hambrick, D. C., & Henderson, A. D., (2011). Do CEOs encounter within-tenure “settling up”? A multiperiod perspective on executive pay and dismissal. Academy of Management Journal, 54(4), 719-739.

Zhang, Y., & Rajagopalan, N. (2010). Once an outsider, always an outsider? CEO origin, strategic change, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 31(3), 334-346.

Zupic, I., & Cater, T. (2015). Bibliometric methods in management and organization. Organizational Research Methods, 18(3), 429-472.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management (IJSM)
Revista Ibero-Americana de Estratégia (RIAE)
e-ISSN: 2176-0756

Iberoamerican Journal of Strategic Management (IJSM) © 2021 All rights reserved.

Is this work licensed with a License
Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional