Abordagem de mercado antiutilitarista: um ensaio sobre o consumo colaborativo

Felipe Gerhard, Ana Augusta Ferreira de Freitas, Raoul Graf

Resumo


Propósito: A crença em um consumidor individualista que apresenta uma atitude marcadamente competitiva, aquisitiva e egoísta em um mercado inflexível é um dos principais credos ontológicos do marketing. No entanto, fenômenos empíricos atuais, como o consumo colaborativo, podem encorajar o surgimento de novos esforços teóricos em direção a uma maior compreensão do mercado. Para progredir com esses esforços, este ensaio teórico visa analisar os aspectos antiutilitaristas do consumo colaborativo que transcendem os fundamentos ontológicos do utilitarismo econômico.

Design/Metodologia/Abordagem: Este ensaio avalia as principais diferenças entre as teorias utilitaristas e antiutilitaristas, no que diz respeito às relações de troca, às ações dos consumidores e ao próprio conceito de mercado. Para tanto, a análise é baseada em uma perspectiva teórica intersubjetiva.

Achados: Longe de se configurar como uma revolução da benevolência ou do altruísmo, o consumo colaborativo pode reorganizar o sistema de produção e circulação de bens e serviços, pois se baseia em princípios ausentes nas teorias utilitárias, como alteridade, reciprocidade e obtenção de benefícios relacionais. Confrontando importantes premissas utilitárias, como a perspectiva de um mercado natural ou a imanência da figura do Homo Economicus, o consumo colaborativo desvia-se das teorizações essencialmente individualistas sobre o comportamento humano. Baseando-se em uma perspectiva antiutilitarista, essas descobertas ampliam alguns limites conceituais presentes no campo do comportamento do consumidor.

Originalidade/Valor: A partir de uma proposição antiutilitarista, apresentamos conceitos que subvertem as perspectivas tradicionais das ações do consumidor, das relações de troca e do próprio mercado, debatendo as fronteiras do campo do comportamento do consumidor.


Palavras-chave


Antiutilitarismo; Utilitarismo; Mercado; Consumo colaborativo; Comportamento do consumidor

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5585/remark.v21i2.18074

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