The role of environmental concern in mediating the effect of personal environmental norms on the intention to purchase green products: a case study on outdoor athletes

Nedim Tekin, Dilşad Çoknaz


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of environmental concern in mediating the relationship between outdoor athletes’ personal environmental norms and their intention to purchase green products.

Method: In the study, The Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used. The study group of the research consisted of licensed outdoor athletes (n=396) in Turkey. The SPSS 25.0 software program was used for the descriptive data, and the AMOS 24.0 software program was used for the confirmatory factor analysis and structural model test.

Results:  The results of the analysis revealed that the outdoor athletes’ personal environmental norms had a positive effect on their environmental concerns and intention to purchase green products. That is, the outdoor athletes’ personal environmental norms increased their environmental concerns and green purchase intention. Moreover, it was seen that the outdoor athletes’ environmental concerns had a positive effect on their green purchase intention and that they had a significant role in mediating the relationship between personal environmental norms and green purchase intention.

Theoretical contributions: In conclusion, it is thought that outdoor sports can be used as a mean of strengthening consumers’ personal environmental norms and environmental concerns in order to encourage green consumption.

Originality: Among the sample groups of studies conducted on the subject of green consumption, the fact that no study can be found that examines consumption behaviours of outdoor athletes, who represent the assumption that since they do outdoor sports, they can be closely involved with the natural environment, makes it important to determine outdoor athletes’ green purchase intentions. Therefore, the current study differs in this respect from other conducted studies.


Outdoor Athletes. Green Purchase Intention. Personal Environmental Norm. Environmental Concern

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality, and behaviour. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behaviour. In Action control (pp. 11-39). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Aracioğlu, B., and Tatlidil, R. (2009). Effects of Environmental Consciousness Over Consumers’ Purchasing Behaviour. Ege Academic Review, 9(2), 435-461.

Berns, G. N., and Simpson, S. (2009). Outdoor recreation participation and environmental concern: A research summary. Journal of Experiential Education, 32(1), 79-91.

Bjerke, T., And, C. T., and Kleiven, J. (2006). Outdoor recreation interests and environmental attitudes in Norway. Managing leisure, 11(2), 116-128.

Bögeholz, S. (2006). Nature experience and its importance for environmental knowledge, values and action: Recent German empirical contributions. Environmental education research, 12(1), 65-84.

Brymer, E., Downey, G., and Gray, T. (2009). Extreme sports as a precursor to environmental sustainability. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 14(2-3), 193-204.

Casper, J. M., and Pfahl, M. E. (2012). Environmental behaviour frameworks of sport and recreation undergraduate students. Sport management education journal, 6(1), 8-20.

Charter, M., Peattie, K., Ottman, J., and Polonsky, M. J. (2002). Marketing and sustainability. Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society (BRASS) in association with The Centre for Sustainable Design, April.

Chen, T. B., and Chai, L. T. (2010). Attitude towards the environment and green products: Consumers’ perspective. Management science and engineering, 4(2), 27-39.

Chuah, S. H. W., El-Manstrly, D., Tseng, M. L., and Ramayah, T. (2020). Sustaining customer engagement behaviour through corporate social responsibility: The roles of environmental concern and green trust. Journal of Cleaner Production, 121348.

Demirhan, G. (2003). “Doğa Sporlarına İlişkin Risk Algılanması”. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 14(1), 1-13.

Dickson, T. J., Gray, T., and Mann, K. (2008). Australian outdoor adventure activity benefits catalogue.

Dunlap, Riley E. and Jorgenson, Andrew K. (2012).” Environmental problems”. The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Globalization, First Edition. Ed. G. Ritzer. The Blackwell Publishing Ltd.1-8.

Eigenschenk, B., Thomann, A., McClure, M., Davies, L., Gregory, M., Dettweiler, U., and Inglés, E. (2019). Benefits of outdoor sports for society. A systematic literature review and reflections on evidence. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(6), 937.

Fabiola, K., and Mayangsari, L. (2020). The Influence of Green Scepticism, Environmental Knowledge and Environmental Concern on Generation Z's Green Purchase Intentions in Indonesia. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 5(8), 96-105.

Fauzan, N., and Azhar, F. N. (2019). The influence of environmental concern and environmental attitude on purchase intention towards green products: A case study of students college in Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. In International Conference on Public Organization (ICONPO).

Fornell, C., and Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fransson, N., and Gärling, T. (1999). Environmental concern: Conceptual definitions, measurement methods, and research findings. Journal of environmental psychology, 19(4), 369-382.

Fresque, J., and Plummer, R. (2009). Accounting for consumption related to outdoor recreation: An application of ecological footprint analysis. Leisure/Loisir, 33(2), 589-614.

Gardner, B., and Abraham, C. (2010). Going green? Modelling the impact of environmental concerns and perceptions of transportation alternatives on decisions to drive. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(4), 831-849.

Gau, J. M. (2010). Basic principles and practices of structural equation modelling in criminal justice and criminology research. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 21(2), 136-151.

Gifford, R., and Nilsson, A. (2014). Personal and social factors that influence pro‐environmental concern and behaviour: A review. International Journal of Psychology, 49(3), 141-157.

Han, H. (2020). Theory of green purchase behaviour (TGPB): A new theory for sustainable consumption of green hotel and green restaurant products. Business Strategy and the Environment, 29(6), 2815-2828.

Hartmann, P., and Apaolaza-Ibáñez, V. (2012). Consumer attitude and purchase intention toward green energy brands: The roles of psychological benefits and environmental concern. Journal of business Research, 65(9), 1254-1263.

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication Monographs, 85(1), 4-40.

He, X., and Zhan, W. (2018). How to activate moral norm to adopt electric vehicles in China? An empirical study based on extended norm activation theory. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 3546-3556.

He, Y., Gai, Y., Wu, X., and Wan, H. (2012). Quantitatively analyse composition principle of Ma Huang Tang by structural equation modelling. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 143(3), 851-858.

Heath, Teresa and McKechnie, Sally (2019). "Sustainability in Marketing." Incorporating Sustainability in Management Education. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 105-131.

Heywood, J. L. (1996). "Social regularities in outdoor recreation." Leisure sciences, 18(1), 23-37.

Huang, C. C., Wang, Y. M., Wu, T. W., and Wang, P. A. (2013). An empirical analysis of the antecedents and performance consequences of using the Moodle platform. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 3(2), 217.

Hu, L. T., and Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modelling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological methods, 3(4), 424.

Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy Jr, J. A., and Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: an overview and some recommendations. Psychological methods, 14(1), 6.

Joanes, T. (2019). Personal norms in a globalized world: Norm-activation processes and reduced clothing consumption. Journal of Cleaner Production, 212, 941-949.

Keizer, M., Sargisson, R. J., van Zomeren, M., and Steg, L. (2019). When personal norms predict the acceptability of push and pull car-reduction policies: Testing the ABC model and low-cost hypothesis. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 64, 413-423.

Kilbourne, W., and Pickett, G. (2008). How materialism affects environmental beliefs, concern, and environmentally responsible behaviour. Journal of Business Research, 61(9), 885-893.

Kim, J. J., and Hwang, J. (2020). Merging the norm activation model and the theory of planned behaviour in the context of drone food delivery services: Does the level of product knowledge really matter?. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 42, 1-11.

Kim, S. H., and Seock, Y. K. (2019). The roles of values and social norm on personal norms and pro-environmentally friendly apparel product purchasing behaviour: The mediating role of personal norms. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 51, 83-90.

Kim, Y., and Choi, S. M. (2005). Antecedents of green purchase behaviour: An examination of collectivism, environmental concern, and PCE. ACR North American Advances.

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (Fourth Edition). London: Guilford publications.

Koenig-Lewis, N., Palmer, A., Dermody, J., and Urbye, A. (2014). Consumers' evaluations of ecological packaging–Rational and emotional approaches. Journal of environmental psychology, 37, 94-105.

Koklic, M. K., Golob, U., Podnar, K., and Zabkar, V. (2019). The interplay of past consumption, attitudes and personal norms in organic food buying. Appetite, 137, 27-34.

Krejcie, R. V., and Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.

Larson, L. R., Whiting, J. W., and Green, G. T. (2011). Exploring the influence of outdoor recreation participation on pro-environmental behaviour in a demographically diverse population. Local Environment, 16(1), 67-86.

Lee, Y. K., Kim, S., Kim, M. S., and Choi, J. G. (2014). Antecedents and interrelationships of three types of pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Business Research, 67(10), 2097-2105.

Mei, O. J., Ling, K. C., and Piew, T. H. (2012). The antecedents of green purchase intention among Malaysian consumers. Asian Social Science, 8(13), 248.

Minton, A. P. and Rose, R. L. (1997). “The Effects of Environmental Concern on Environmentally Friendly Consumer Behaviour: An Exploratory Study.” Journal of Business Research, 40, 37–48.

Moser, A. K. (2015). Thinking green, buying green? Drivers of pro-environmental purchasing behaviour. Journal of consumer marketing, 32 (3), 167–175.

Mulaik, S. A., and Millsap, R. E. (2000). Doing the four-step right. Structural equation modelling, 7(1), 36-73.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ong, T. F. and Musa, G. (2011). “An examination of recreational divers' underwater behaviour by attitude–behaviour theories.” Current issues in Tourism, 14(8), 779-795.

Onurlubaş, E. (2018). The mediating role of environmental attitude on the impact of environmental concern on green product purchasing intention. EMAJ: Emerging Markets Journal, 8(2), 5-18.

Önel, N. (2017). “Pro-environmental Purchasing Behaviour of Consumers: The Role of Norms”. Social Marketing Quarterly, 23(2), 103-121.

Prakash, G. and Pathak, P. (2017). "Intention to buy eco-friendly packaged products among young consumers of India: A study on developing nation." Journal of Cleaner Production, 14, 385-393.

Roberts, J. A. and Bacon, D. R. (1997). “Exploring the Subtle Relationships between Environmental Concern and Ecologically Conscious Consumer Behaviour”. Journal of Business Research, 40, 79–89.

Roggenbuck, J. W., Williams, D. R., Bange, S. P., and Dean, D. J. (1991). River float trip encounter norms: Questioning the use of the social norms concept. Journal of Leisure Research, 23(2), 133-153.

Saba, A. and Messina, F. (2003). "Attitudes towards organic foods and risk/benefit perception associated with pesticides." Food quality and preference, 14 (8), 637-645.

Satchabut, T. (2013). Effects Of Recreation Participation and Tildenian Interpretation On Tourists’ Environmental Concern. Texas: Texas A&M University.

Schultz, P. Wesley (2001). “The Structure Of Environmental Concern: Concern For Self, Other People, And The Biosphere”. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 327-339.

Schwartz, S. H. (1977). Normative influences on altruism. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 10, pp. 22 1-279). New York, NY Academic.

Schwepker Jr., C. H. and Cornwell, T. B. (1991). “An Examination of Ecologically Concerned Consumers and Their Intention to Purchase Ecologically Packaged Products”. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 10(2), 77-101.

Shamdasani, P., Chon-Lin, G. O., and Richmond, D. (1993). Exploring green consumers in an oriental culture: Role of personal and marketing mix factors. ACR North American Advances.

Shen, Y. C., and Chen, H. S. (2020). Exploring Consumers’ Purchase Intention of An Innovation of the Agri-Food Industry: A Case of Artificial Meat. Foods, 9(6), 745.

Shin, Y. H., Im, J., Jung, S. E., and Severt, K. (2018). The theory of planned behaviour and the norm activation model approach to consumer behaviour regarding organic menus. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 69, 21-29.

Song, Y., Zhao, C., and Zhang, M. (2019). Does haze pollution promote the consumption of energy-saving appliances in China? An empirical study based on norm activation model. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 145, 220-229.

Steg, L., De Groot, J. I., Dreijerink, L., Abrahamse, W., and Siero, F. (2011). General antecedents of personal norms, policy acceptability, and intentions: The role of values, worldviews, and environmental concern. Society and Natural Resources, 24(4), 349-367.

Stern, P. C. (2000). New environmental theories: toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behaviour. Journal of social issues, 56(3), 407-424.

Stoeglehner, G. (2020). Strategicness–the core issue of environmental planning and assessment of the 21st century. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 38(2), 141-145.

Tanner, C. and Kast, S. W. (2003). “Promoting Sustainable Consumption: Determinants Of Green Purchases by Swiss Consumers”. Psychology & Marketing, 20(10), 883–902.

Tekin, N. (2020). Outdoor Sports and Activities on The Way of Green Consumption. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Institute of Higher Education, Department of Sports Management.

Teisl, M. F. and O'Brien, K. (2002). "Who cares and who acts? Different types of outdoor recreationists exhibit different levels of environmental concern and behaviour." In: Todd, Sharon, comp., ed. 2002. Proceedings of the 2001 North-eastern Recreation Research Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289. Newtown Square, PA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North-eastern Research Station, 289, 168-174.

Thøgersen, J. and Ölander, F. (2006). "The dynamic interaction of personal norms and environment‐friendly buying behaviour: a panel Study 1." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(7), 1758-1780.

Thøgersen, J. (2006). "Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy." Journal of environmental Psychology, 26 (4), 247-261.

Thøgersen, J. (2009). Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food products. Traditional food production and rural sustainable development: A European challenge, 1, 173-192.

Quoquab, F., Jaini, A., and Mohammad, J. (2020). Does it matter who exhibits more green purchase behaviour of cosmetic products in Asian culture? A multi-group analysis approach. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(14), 5258.

Wang, B., Li, J., Sun, A., Wang, Y., and Wu, D. (2020). Residents’ Green Purchasing Intentions in a Developing-Country Context: Integrating PLS-SEM and MGA Methods. Sustainability, 12(1), 30.

Williams, D. R., Roggenbuck, J. W. and Bange, S. (1991). "The Effect of Norm-Encounter Compatibility On Crowding Perceptions, Experience and Behaviour in River Recreation Settings." Journal of Leisure Research, 23(2), 154-172.

Wu, J., Liao, H., Wang, J. W., and Chen, T. (2019). The role of environmental concern in the public acceptance of autonomous electric vehicles: A survey from China. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 60, 37-46.

Wu, P. C., Yeh, G. Y. Y., and Hsiao, C. R. (2011). The effect of store image and service quality on brand image and purchase intention for private label brands. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 19(1), 30-39.

Van Huylenbroek, G., Mondelaers, K., Aertsens, J., Aertsens, J., Verbeke, W., Mondelaers, K., and Van Huylenbroeck, G. (2009). Personal determinants of organic food consumption: a review. British food journal.

Vermeir, I. and Verbeke, W. (2008). “Sustainable food consumption among young adults in Belgium: Theory of planned behaviour and the role of confidence and values”. Ecological Economics, 64(3), 542–553.

Yadav, R. and Pathak, G. S. (2016). "Young consumers' intention towards buying green products in a developing nation: Extending the theory of planned behaviour." Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, 732-739.

Youn, H., Yin, R., Kim, J. H., and Li, J. J. (2020). Examining traditional restaurant diners’ intention: An application of the VBN theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 85, 102360.

Yue, B., Sheng, G., She, S., and Xu, J. (2020). Impact of Consumer Environmental Responsibility on Green Consumption Behaviour in China: The Role of Environmental Concern and Price Sensitivity. Sustainability, 12(5), 2074.

Yzerbyt, V., Muller, D., Batailler, C., and Judd, C. M. (2018). New recommendations for testing indirect effects in mediational models: The need to report and test component paths. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(6), 929. Date of Access:11 October 2018.



  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2022 Revista Brasileira de Marketing

Revista Brasileira de Marketing – ReMark

Brazilian Journal of Marketing - BJM

e-ISSN: 2177-5184

Rev. Bras. Mark. - ReMark ©2022 Todos os direitos reservados.

Esta obra está licenciada com uma Licença 
Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional