Examınatıon of famous use ın televısıon advertısements wıth electroencephalogram (EEG)

the example of Turkey

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5585/remark.v23i1.23563

Palavras-chave:

Neuromarketing, Electroencephalography (EEG), Television Advertising, Celebrity

Resumo

Objective: The research aims to analyze the changes in brain activity of emotions caused by the use of celebrities in television (TV) commercials using Electroencephalography (EEG). It tries to determine the positive (liking, having fun) and negative (disliking, bored) emotions of the audience with Electroencephalography (EEG).

Method: We tried to determine the emotional states of the volunteers who watched the commercials by examining the theta activities in different parts of their brains. A questionnaire was applied to 36 volunteers in our research before and after watching the advertisements. EEG recordings were made while the volunteers were watching the commercials. Theta activities obtained as a result of EEG recording were tabulated as duration. The hypotheses were tested by using the responses of the volunteers to the questionnaires and the EEG results comparatively with frequency tables and the Independent-Samples T test.

Originality/Relevance: Both the preparation and broadcasting of TV advertisements, which have a very important place in marketing communication, can be very costly for businesses. Neuromarketing, which encourages interdisciplinary work, allows the use of methods, designs, theories and technologies used in neuroscience in areas such as marketing and advertising. In this study, with the help of EEG, one of the techniques used in neuromarketing, it has been tried to determine the emotions that the advertisements will create in the audience. It is among the few experimental studies conducted in Turkey.

Results: Although EEG results shows that the activity intensity in the left hemisphere and left frontal lobe was higher than the activity intensity observed in the right hemisphere and right frontal lobe in the volunteers watching TV commercials, and the activity intensity in the left hemisphere and left frontal lobe in the volunteers where the advertisements created positive emotions, and the activity intensity in the left hemisphere and left frontal lobe in the volunteers, where the advertisements created negative emotions, statistically, as our hypotheses suggest, no significant activity difference was observed.

Theoretical/methodological contributions: The research contributes to the scientific community by deepening the knowledge on neuromarketing, which is under development in Turkey as in many countries. It also provides clues about the use of neuromarketing in advertising research. This study will contribute to the preparation of effective advertisements by understanding the emotions of the audience.

Managerial implications: Research findings can help businesses and advertisers prepare more effective commercials, thereby saving businesses costs.

Referências

Aizei, Y. (2017). Televizyon Reklamlarının Ölçülmesi: Ürün Hatırlamaları Üzerine Bir Uygulama. (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi) İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi.

Aktaş, H. & Zengin, M. (2010). Dagmar Modeli: Deterjan Reklamları Örneğinde Görsel Bir Çözümleme. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 24, p. 31-43.

Albert, N., Ambrose L. & Valette-Florence, P. (2012). Consumer, Brand, Celebrity: Which Congruency Produces Effective Celebrity Endorsements. Journal of Business Research, 81, p. 96-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.08.002.

Amin, C. R., Hasin, M. F., Leon, T. S., Aurko, A. B., Tamanna, T., Rahman, M. A., & Parvez, M. Z. (2020). Consumer behavior analysis using EEG signals for neuromarketing application. In 2020 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI) (pp. 2061-2066). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/SSCI47803.2020.9308358.

Appel, V., Sidney W. & Weinstein, C. (1979). Brain Activity and Recall of TV Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, p. 7-15.

Armağan, E. & Gürsoy, Ö. (2017). A Research On The Effect of Using Celebrity Endorsement in Advertisements on Purchasing Decisions of Consumer. Global Business Research Congress (GBRC), 24-25 Mayıs 2017, İstanbul, PressAcademia Procedia (PAP) V 3, p. 1043-1057. https://doi.org/10.17261/Pressacademia.2018.777.

Bakır, U. (2013). Reklamda Cinsellik ve Tüketici: Bireysel Ahlaki İdeolojinin Reklamda Cinselliğin Kullanımına Yönelik Tutumlara Etkisi. Erciyes İletişim Dergisi “akademia”, 3/1, p. 14-30.

Black, I. & Morton, P. (2017). Appealing to Men and Women Using Sexual Appeals in Advertising: In the Battle of the Sexes, Is a Truce Possible?. Journal of Marketing Communications, 23/4, p. 331-350. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527266.2015.1015108.

Bazzani, A., Ravaioli, S., Trieste, L., Faraguna, U., & Turchetti, G. (2020). Is EEG suitable for marketing research? A systematic review. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14, 594566. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.594566.

Caneppele, N. R., Serra, F. A. R., Pinochet, L. H. C. & Ribeiro, I. M. R. (2022). Potential and Challenges for Using Neuroscientific Tools in Strategic Management Studies. Rausp Management Journal, Vol 57, No.3, p. 235-263. https://doi.org/10.1108/RAUSP-01-2021-0014.

Chang, H.J. (2016). An fMRI Study of Advertising Appeals and Their Relationship to Product Attractiveness and Buying Intentions. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, J. Consumer Behav., 15, p. 538–548. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1591.

Cheonga, Y., Kimb, K. & Zheng L. (2010). Advertising Appeals as A Reflection of Culture: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Food Advertising Appeals in China and the US. Asian Journal of Communication, 20/1, p. 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/01292980903440848.

Chiou, J. (2002). The Effectiveness of Different Advertising Message Appeals in the Eastern Emerging Society: Using Taiwanese TV Commercials as an Example. International Journal of Advertising, 21/2, p. 217-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2002.11104927.

Choi, S. M. & Rifon, N. J. (2007). Who is The Celebrity in Advertising? Understanding Dimensions of Celebrity İmages. The Journal of Popular Culture, 40(2), p. 304-324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5931.2007.00380.x.

Çay. D. (2012). Olumsuz Reklam İçeriğinin Hatırlama Üzerinde Etkisi. (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi) Bahçeşehir Üniversitesi.

Çakar S. (2006). Reklamlarda Korku Çekiciliğinin Kullanılması. (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi) Bahçeşehir Üniversitesi.

Çakır, V. (2006). Reklam ve Marka Tutumu. Tablet Yayımları:53, Konya.

Çakır, V. (2006). Reklamların Beğenilmesinin Tüketicilerin Marka Tutumlarına Etkisi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, p. 663-687.

Çakır, V. (2007). Tüketici İlgilenimini Ölçmek. Selçuk İletişim, 4/4, p. 63-180.

Dix, S. & Marchegiani, C. (2013). Advertising Appeals. Journal of Promotion Management, 19/4, p. 393-394. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496491.2013.817218.

Eldem Ü. Ğ., & Anar, Ö. (2011). Küreselleşme İçinde Ünlülerin Kullanıldığı Reklamlar; “Yerli Malı Yurdun Malı” Anlayışı ve Pepsi Örneği. Fırat Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Medya ve Etik Sempozyumu, Bildiriler Kitabı, p. 63-71.

Eisend, M. (2009). A Meta-Analysis of Humor in Advertising, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37/2, p. 191–203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-008-0096-y.

Ergin, T.Ç., Sert, N.Y. & Salmanova, L. (2018). Reklamlarda Cinsel Çekicilik Kullanımının Tüketiciler Üzerindeki Etkisi: Biscolata Reklamlarının Youtube Kanalı Üzerinden Netnografik Bir İncelemesi. Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 1/2, p. 211-222.

Fırat, D. (2013). Korkunun Bir Pazarlama Aracı Olarak Uygulanması: İşletmelerin Korku Mesajları ile Tüketicilerin Algısı Arasında Uyum Var Mı?, Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi, 5/1, p. 187 – 197.

Garrido-Morgado, A., González-Benito, O., Campo, K., and Martos-Partal, M. (2015). Improving sales of private labels in store,” in Proceedings of the Advances in National Brand and Private Label Marketing. Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, eds F. Martínez-López, J. Gázquez-Abad, and R. Sethuraman (Cham: Springer), 3–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20182-5_1.

Gülver, N. (2017). Marka ve Maskot Arasındaki Çatışma Seviyesinin Maskotun Beğenilme ve Hatırlanmasına Yer Aldığı Reklama ve Ait Olduğu Markaya Karşı Tutuma Olan Etkileri. (Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi) İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi.

Girişken, Y. & Bulut, D. (2014). How Do Consumers Perceive A/An Logotype/Emblem in The Advertisements: An Eyetracking Study. International Journal on Strategic Innovative Marketing, 1 (2014), p. 198-209. https://doi.org/10.15556/IJSIM.01.04.002.

İslamoğlu, A.H. & Altunışık, R. (2010). Tüketici Davranışları. Beta Basım A.Ş. 3. Baskı, İstanbul.

İsmail, A.R. & Melewar, T.C. (2014). Attitude of Muslim Consumers Toward Sex Appeal in Advertising: A Comparative Study Between Subcultures in Malaysia. Journal of Promotion Management, 20/5, p. 553-570. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496491.2014.946204.

Jain, A., Choudhury, T., Singh, R., & Kumar, P. (2018). EEG Signal Classification for Real-Time Neuro Marketing Applications. In 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing and Communication Engineering (ICACCE), pp. 434-438. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICACCE.2018.8441756.

Kazakova, S., Cauberghe, V., Hudders, L. & Labyt, C. (2016). The Impact of Media Multitasking on The Cognitive and Attitudinal Responses to Television Commercials: The Moderating Role of Type of Advertising Appeal. Journal of Advertising, 45/4, p. 403-416. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2016.1183244.

Khurana, V., Gahalawat, M., Kumar, P., Roy, P. P., Dogra, D. P., Scheme, E., & Soleymani, M. (2021). A Survey on Neuromarketing Using EEG Signals. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems, 13(4), 732-749. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCDS.2021.3065200.

Lachance, C.C., Lubitz, A. & Chestnut, R.W. (1977). The Decorative Female Model: Sexual Stimuli and the Recognition of Advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 6/4, p. 11-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1977.10672719.

Lanseng, E.J. (2009). Relevant Sex Appeals in Advertising: Genderand Commitment Context Differences. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, p. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01456.

Lass, P. & Hart, S. (2004). National Cultures, Values and Lifestyles Influencing Consumers' Perception towards Sexual Imagery in Alcohol Advertising: An Exploratory Study in the UK, Germany and Italy. Journal of Marketing Management, 20/5-6, p. 607-623. https://doi.org/10.1362/0267257041323936.

Lin, M. H., Cross, S. N., Jones, W. J., & Childers, T. L. (2018). Applying EEG in Consumer Neuroscience. European Journal of Marketing, 52(1/2), 66-91. ISSN: 0309-0566.

Luk, C.L., Chow, C.W.C., Wan, W.W.N., Lai, J.Y.M., Fu, I. & Fong, C.P.S. (2017). An Institutional Perspective on Modernization and Sex-Appeal Advertising. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 29/2, p. 220-238. ISSN: 1355-5855.

Malär, L., Krohmer, H., Hoyer, W. D., and Nyffenegger, B. (2011). Emotional Brand Attachment and Brand Personality: The Relative İmportance of The Actual and The İdeal Self. J. Marketing 75, 35–52. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.75.4.35. ISSN: 1355-5855.

Mashrur, F. R., Miya, M. T. I., Rawnaque, F. S., Rahman, K. M., Vaidyanathan, R., Anwar, S. F., Sarker, F. & Mamun, K. A. (2021). MarketBrain: An EEG Based Intelligent Consumer Preference Prediction System. In 2021 43rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC) pp. 808-811. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9629841.

Muda, M., Musa, R., Mohamed, R. N. & Borhan, H. (2014). Celebrity Entrepreneur Endorsement and Advertising Effectiveness. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, p. 11-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.002.

Morgan, C.T. (2011). Psikolojiye Giriş. (Çev: R. Coştur) Eğitim Akademi Yayınları. 19. Baskı, Konya, Editörler: Prof.Dr. Sirel KARAKAŞ, Yrd.Doç.Dr. Rükzan Eski, 5. Bölüm.

Morin, C. (2011). Neuromarketing: The New Science of Consumer Behavior. Symposıum: Consumer Culture in Global Perspectıve. Soc (2011) 48, p. 131–135, https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s12115-010-9408-1.

Mostafa, M. M. (2018). Neural Correlates of Fear Appeal in Advertising: An fMRI Analysis. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/ 13527266.2018.1497680.

Ohme, R. Reykowska, D., Wiener, D. & Choromanska, A. (2010). Application of Frontal EEG Asymmetry to Advertising Research. Journal of Economic Psychology, 31, p. 785–793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2010.03.008.

Okazaki, S., Mueller, B. & Taylor, C. R. (2010). Measuring Soft-Sell Versus Hard-Sell Advertising Appeals. Journal of Advertising, 39/2, p. 5-20. https://doi.org/ 10.2753/JOA0091-3367390201.

Özüpek, M.N., Özer, D. (2018). Sigara Karşıtı Kamu Spotlarının Bireyler Üzerindeki Etkisinin Nörogörüntüleme Yöntemiyle Tespit Edilmesi. Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9/16, p. 183-215. https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.412027.

Panda, T., Panda T. K. & Mishra, K. (2013). Does Emotional Appeal Work in Advertising? The Rationality Behind Using Emotional Appeal to Create Favorable Brand Attitude. The IUP Journal of Brand Management, X/2, p. 7-23.

Polat, H. & Özerdem, M.S. (2016). Görsel - İşitsel Uyaranlar Kaynaklı Oluşan Duyguların EEG İşaretleri ile Sınıflandırılması. Mühendislik Dergisi, Dicle Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi, 7/1, p. 33-40.

Puto, C.P. & Wells, W.D. (1984). Informational and Transformational Advertising: The Differential Effects of Time. Advances in Consumer Research, 11, p. 638-643. http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/6323/volumes/v11/NA-11 (28/12/2018).

Rabcan, J. & Kvassay, M. Electroencephalogram Signals Classification by Ordered Fuzzy Decision Tree. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1844/10000072.pdf, (08/03/2018).

Reichert, T. & Fosu, I. (2005). Women's Responses to Sex in Advertising. Journal of Promotion Management, 11/2-3, p. 143-153. https://doi.org/10.1300/J057v11n02_10

Reichert, T., La Tour, M. S. & Jooyoung, K. (2007). Assessing the Influence of Gender and Sexual Self-Schema on Affective Responses to Sexual Content in Adevertising. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 29(2), p. 63-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641734.2007.10505217.

Rejer, I. & Jankowski, J. (2017). Brain Activity Patterns Induced By Interrupting The Cognitive Processes With Online Advertising. Cogn Process, 18, p. 419-430. https://doi.org/ 10.1023/B:NEAB.0000038139.39812.eb.

Shigaki, H. B., Gonçalves, C. A. & Santos, C. P. V. (2017). Consumer Neuroscience and Neuromarketing: Theoretical Adoption Potential With The Application of Methods and Techniques in Neuroscience. Revista Brasileira De Marketing. Vol. 16, N. 4, p. 439-453. https://doi.org/10.5585/remark.v16i4.3427.

Shin, S., Ki, E. J. & Griffin, W. G. (2017). The Effectiveness of Fear Appeals in ‘Green’ Advertising: An Analysis of Creative, Consumer, and Source Variables. Journal of Marketing Communications, 23/5, p. 473-492. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 13527266.2017.1290671.

Siefert, C., Gallent, J., Jacobs, D., Levine, B., Stipp, H. & Marci, C. (2008). Biometric and Eye-Tracking Insights Into The Efficiency of Information Processing of Television Advertising During Fast-Forward Viewing. International Journal of Advertising, 27/3, p. 425-446. https://doi.org/10.2501/S0265048708080050.

Solak, B. B. (2017). Televizyon Reklamlarında Mizah ve Mizahi Karakter Kullanımı: Banka Reklamlarına Yönelik Analiz. İnönü Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi (İNİF E-Dergi), 1(2), p. 170-190.

Strick, M., Holland, R.W., Baaren, R.B., Knippenberg, A. & Dijksterhuis, A. (2013). Humour in Advertising: An Associative Processing Model. European Review of Social Psychology, 24/1, p. 32-69. eBook ISBN9781315094274.

Şen, A.F. & Altın, Ş.Y. (2018). 1980’lerden 2000’lere Reklamın Söylemsel ve Görsel Dönüşümünün Göstergebilimsel Analizi. Atatürk İletişim Dergisi, 16, p. 5-30. https://doi.org/10.32952/atauniiletisim.484738.

Teplan, M. (2002). Fundamentals of EEG Measurement. Measurement Science Review, 2/2, 1/11.

Ural, T. (2008). Pazarlamada Yeni Yaklaşım: Nöropazarlama Üzerine Kuramsal Bir Değerlendirme. Ç.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 17/2, p. 421-432.

Vecchiato, G., Toppi, J., Astolfi, L., Fallani, F.D., Cincotti, F., Mattia, D., Bez, F. & Babiloni, F. (2011). Spectral EEG Frontal Asymmetries Correlate With The Experienced Pleasantness of TV Commercial Advertisements. Med Biol Eng Comput, 49, p. 579–583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-011-0747-x.

Williams, K.C. (2012). Fear Appeal Theory. Research in Business and Economics Journal, 5/1, p. 1-21.

Yücel, A., Orhan, E.B., Yücel, N., Yılmaz, A.S., Şimşek, A.İ. & Çubuk, F. (2015). A Neuropolitic Experiment on State Leaders on the Grounds of Power, Charisma, Trust and Peacebility. The 2015 WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, Harvard, USA.

Zhang, H., Sun, J., Liu, F. & Knight, J.G. (2014). Be rational or Be Emotional: Advertising Appeals, Service Types and Consumer Responses. European Journal of Marketing, 48/11-12, p. 2105-2126. ISSN: 0309-0566.

Downloads

Publicado

08.02.2024

Como Citar

OYMAN, T. (2024). Examınatıon of famous use ın televısıon advertısements wıth electroencephalogram (EEG): the example of Turkey. ReMark - Revista Brasileira De Marketing, 23(1), 72–96. https://doi.org/10.5585/remark.v23i1.23563

Edição

Seção

Special Issue: Applications of neurosciences to the marketing field